Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

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Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

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Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

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Effects of smoking on health care costs.


Nair AK, Brandt EN Jr




J Okla State Med Assoc


Smoking is the leading preventable cause of death in the United States. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimate that smoking kills approximately 419,000 people in the United States each year. Cigarette smoking is the nation's leading cause of premature mortality, and is responsible for one-third of all deaths among working-age Americans. Smoking cigarettes is both psychologically and physiologically addictive. Smoking is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, especially coronary artery disease, stroke, carcinoma of the lung, chronic bronchitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and emphysema. It also increases the risk for peripheral vascular disease and is associated with cancers of the larynx, oral cavity, esophagus, pancreas, and urinary bladder. Smoking by pregnant women can cause adverse health effects on their babies, like low birth weight and preterm delivery; increases the risk of miscarriage; and has also been found to be an important cause of sudden infant death syndrome. Careless smoking also can cause severe burn injuries and death. Many of these adverse effects of smoking occur in "second-hand" smokers.

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Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

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Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

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