How is membrane phospholipid biosynthesis controlled in neural tissues?


Araki W, Wurtman RJ




J Neurosci Res


Phospholipids are the major constituents of cell membranes, and have numerous structural and functional roles in the nervous system. Although the metabolic pathways responsible for the syntheses of the phosphatides phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), phosphatidylethanolamine (PtdEtn), and phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) are well understood, the mechanisms controlling these pathways in neural tissue have not been fully characterized. Recent studies have suggested that the main factors controlling PtdCho and PtdEtn synthesis by the Kennedy cycle tend to be the intracellular levels of key substrates for the biosynthetic enzymes, or changes in the activities of the rate- limiting enzymes. Moreover, different control mechanisms may operate, depending upon the functional state of the tissue.