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International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

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Plant Part Used

Flower buds

Active Constituents

Acetophenone, benzaldehyde, 3-methoxybenzaldehyde, benzoic acid benzyl ester, benzoic acid ethyl ester, benzoic acid methyl ester, benzoic acid propyl ester, alpha-cadinene, gamma-cadinene, alpha-cadinol, calamenene, alpha-copaene, alpha-cubebene, cubenene, cuminaldehyde, gamma-decalactone, fenchone, furaldehyde, 5-methyl furaldehyde, geranial, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, heptan-2-one, hexanal, linoleic acid methyl ester, alpha-muurolene, beta-muurolene, gamma-muurolene, nonan-2-one, palmitic acid methyl ester, palustrol, beta-pinene, salicylic acid benzyl ester, beta-selinene, stearic acid methyl ester, alpha-thujene, beta-caryophyllene, beta-caryophyllene oxide, humulene, alpha-humulene epoxide, caryophylline, eugenin, eugenol, eugenol acetate, fluoride, gallic acid, maslinic acid, oleanolic acid, beta-sitosterol, xylose, pthalic acid dibutyl diester, terpinen-4-ol, alpha-terpineol, beta-terpineol, 4,4-dimethyl tricyclo[6,3,3.0]trideca-8-ene-1-ol, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside, 5,7-dihydroxy-2-methylchromone-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) , (5) , (6) , (7) , (8) , (9) , (10) , (11) , (12) , (13) , (14)


Eugenia caryophyllata or clove is a small tree reaching 5-12 meters high, with a straight main trunk and very abundant leaves. The leaves have a very strong aromatic smell when bruised and they are oppositely arranged. The flowers are terminal corymbs. There are about 5-20 flower buds in a corymbs. (15) Cloves are used in the European medicine as an aromatic stimulant, antispasmodic, and carminative. They also used locally as medicines by the Malays. It is also used as poultices for headaches and toothaches and the tonics may be given after confinement. In addition, pounded cloves can be rubbed on the abdomen after childbirth. (16)


No standard marker has been reported. Other standard profiles have been documented in the Malaysian Herbal Monograph. (17)

Side Effects

Cloves can cause local skin irritation, pulmonary edema, mouth sensitivity, and sudden lower airway closure. In addition, smoking clove cigarettes can damage soft tissues and injure the airway linings. (18)

Pregnancy/ Breast Feeding

The use of this herb should be avoided in pregnant and lactating women.

Age Limitations

Safety in young children and the elderly has not been established.


Pharmacological evaluations showed that eugenol possesses anticonvulsant (19) and anti-stress (20) properties in experimental animals. The methanolic extract of the cortex of E. caryophyllata was found to potently inhibit the prostaglandin E2 production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells (98.3 % inhibition at the test concentration of 10 µg/ml). Bioassay-guided fractionation of hexane-soluble partition produced eugenol, which exhibited a significant inhibition of PGE2 production (IC50 = 0.37 µM). In addition, eugenol suppressed the cyclooxgenase-2 (COX-2) gene expression in LPS-stimulated mouse macrophage cells. Eugenol also inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 human colon caner cells and the mRNA expression of COX-2, but not COX-1. Therefore, it is suggested that eugenol might be a plausible lead candidate for further developing a COX-2 inhibitor as an anti-inflammatory or cancer chemopreventive agent. (21) In contrast, clove oil illustrated motor impairment on rotating rods in male mice. (22)

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  1)  Safety


  1. Muchalal M, Crouzet J. J Agr Biol Chem. 1985;49:1583-1589.
  2. Walter RH. Beta-Caryophyllene in native clove bud oil. Phytochem. 1972;11(1):405-406.
  3. Zheng GQ, Kenney PM, Lam LKT. Sesquiterpenes from clove (Eugenia caryophyllata) as potential anticarcinogenic agents. J Nat Prod. 1992;55:999-103.
  4. Sethi SC, Aggarwal JS. J Sci Ind Res B. 1956;15:34-36.
  5. Nonaka GI, Harada M, Nishioka I. Chem Pharm Bull. 1980;28:685-687.
  6. Watanabe F, Nozaka T, Tadaki SI, Morimoto I. Shoyakugaku Zasshi. 1989;43:324-330.
  7. Hashimoto Y, Kwanishi K, Tomita H, Uhara Y, Moriyasu M. Anal Lett. 1981;14:1525-1529.
  8. Sakai T, Kobashi K, Tsunezuka M, Hattori M, Namba T. Shoyakugaku Zasshi. 1985;39:165-169.
  9. Kramer RE. J Amer Oil Chem Soc. 1985;62:111-113.
  10. Narayanan CR, Natu AA, Ramaswamy PS, Sawaikar DD. Proc. Third Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices, Colombo. 1977:25-26.
  11. Gopalakrishnan M, Madhusudanan KP, Narayanan CS, Mathew AG. Lebensm Wiss Technol. 1985;18:264-266.
  12. Uchida T, Matsubara Y, Adachi A. Agr Biol Chem. 1986;50:1903-1904.
  13. Ghosal S, Kumar Y, Singh S, Ahad K. Phytochem. 1983;22:2591.
  14. Zhang Y, Chen Y. Isobiflorin, a chromone C-glucoside from cloves (Eugenia caryophyllata). Phytochem. 1997;45(2):401-403.
  15. Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Malaysian Monograph Committee. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1999;1.
  16. Sun Man Juan, et al. 36 cases of albuminuria due to accumulation of damp-heat treated with modified Ba Zheng San. Heilongjiang Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine. 1990;(3):22-23.
  17. Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Malaysian Monograph Committee. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1999;1.
  18. Fetrow CW, Avila JR. The Complete Guide to Herbal Medicines. Springhouse Corporation. Springhouse, USA. 1999.
  19. Dallmeier K, Carlini EA. Anesthetic, hypothermic, myorelexant and anticonvulsant effects of synthetic eugenol derivatives and natural analogues. Pharmacol. 1981;22:113-127.
  20. Sen P, Maiti PC, Puri S. Mechanism of anti-stress activity of Ocimum sanctum Linn., eugenol and Tinospora malabaria in experimental animals. Ind J Exp Biol. 1992;30:592-596.
  21. Kim SS, Oh OJ, Min HY, et al. Eugenol suppresses cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mouse macrophage RAW264.7 cells. Life Sci. 2003;73:337-348.
  22. Pourgholami MH, Kamalinejad M, Javadi M, Majzoob S, Sayyah M. Evaluation of the anticonvulsant activity of the essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in male mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 1999;64:167-171.

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