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Tutup Bumi

Plant Part Used

Leaf, stem, whole plant.

Active Constituents

Dotriacontanol, epifriedelinol, triacontanol, pottassium chloride, 11,13-dihydrodeoxyelephantopin, 11,13-dihydroelephantopin, stigmosterol, epifriedelanol, lupeol, sesquiterpene lactones (deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin), mixture of triacontan-1-ol and dotriacontan-1-ol, luteolin-7-glucoside, lupeol acetate, molephantin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-methoxyphantomolin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-hydroxyphantomolin. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4)

Introduction

Elephantopus scaber Linn. or tutup bumi is a wild shrub about 20-40cm high and very pubescent. It has a basal rosette of leaves with very short and white hairy leaf stalks close to ground. The plant is considered a febrifuge in Indo-China, Malaysia, Japan, Indonesia, and the Philippines and are now growing wildly throughout America. In traditional treatment, the plant decoction is normally taken as a preventive medicine after childbirth and stomachache.

Dosage Info

Dosage Range

Internal Use
A water decoction of this plant’s material can be taken as supplement drink and is used for parturiation (after childbirth as protective medicine) and as a tonic for coughs and vomiting. (5)

External Use
The leaf paste is used for headaches, stomachaches, edema and for wound/cuts. (6)

Most Common Dosage

Internal Use
A water decoction of this plant’s material can be taken as supplement drink and is used for parturiation (after childbirth as protective medicine) and as a tonic for coughs and vomiting. (7)

External Use
The leaf paste is used for headaches, stomachaches, edema and for wound/cuts. (8)

Standardization

No standard marker has been reported. The standard profiles were documented in the Malaysian Herbal Monograph.

Toxicities & Precautions

Introduction

The plant leaf was reported by Pusat Racun Negara, USM as a poison, however only high doses of the plant decoction were reported to be lethal from the in-vivo test. (9) , (10)

Pregnancy/ Breast Feeding

This herb should not be used in pregnant or lactating women unless recommended by physician.

Age Limitations

Safety in young and children and the elderly has not been established.

Pharmacology

In Taiwan folk medicine, Teng–Khia-U combines Elephantopus scaber Linn. , Elephantopus mollis H.B.K and Pseudoelephantopus spicatus (Jurs) in its formulation. Scientific studies had reported that the water extracts of plant mixture has a hepatoprotective effect against beta-D-galactosamine (D-Ga1N) and acetaminophen (APAP)-induced acute hepatic damage where serums levels of glutamate-oxalate-transaminase (sGOT) and glutamate-pyruvate-transaminase (sGPT) were decreased in rats. The pathological changes of hepatic lesions were also improved. (11) The hepatoprotective by Elephantopus scaber was also shown in various tissues of treated rats where the biochemical changes induced by carbon tetrachloride improved. (12)

The sesquiterpene lactones of Elephantopus scaber Linn. were reported by the National Institute of Cancer to have anti-tumor activity. (13) An investigation in animal studies has revealed non-narcotic analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and weak antipyretic activities in Elephantopus scaber. (14) In-vivo studies in rats have also reported that significant choleretic activity was shown by the ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber. (15)

Elephantopus scaber was also found to exhibit an antibacterial activity against serotype c and d of Streptococcus mutans which cause human dental . (16)

Reported Uses

Uses reported in folk medicine, but not supported by clinical data
Elephantopus scaber L. is used as a protective substance after childbirth, as a diuretic, antifebrile, antiviral, antibacterial agent, in treating hepatitis and bronchitis, coughs associated with pneumonia, scabies and arthralgia, wound healing, edema and inflammation of the scrotum, jaundice, to drive out round worms, chest pain, snake bites, insect bites, anti-malaria, elliminating bladder stones, anthelmintic, various stomach disorders, venereal diseases and Teng-Khia-U taiwanese medicine (nephritis, edema, dampness, chess pain, fever). (17) , (18) , (19) , (20) , (21) , (22) , (23)

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  1) Botanical Info

  2) Safety


 

References

  1. But PPH, Hon PM, Cao H, et al. Sesquiterpene Lactons from Elephantopus scaber. Phytochemistry. 1997;44(1):113-6.
  2. But PPH, Hon PM, Cao H, Che CT. A new Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus mollis. Planta Medica. Natural Products and Medicinal Plant Research. Thieme Medical Publishers Inc: 1966;62.
  3. Silva LB, Herath WHMW, Jennings RC. A new Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus scaber. Phytochemistry. 1982;21(5):1173-1175.
  4. Sim KY, Lee HT. Constituent of Elephantopus scaber (Compositae). Phytochemistry. 1969;8(5):933-4.
  5. Medicinal Plants of Tabin Wildlife Reserve. http:/www.divesabah.com/tabinguide/inverts/htm.
  6. Medicinal Plants of Tabin Wildlife Reserve. http:/www.divesabah.com/tabinguide/inverts/htm.
  7. Medicinal Plants of Tabin Wildlife Reserve. http:/www.divesabah.com/tabinguide/inverts/htm.
  8. Medicinal Plants of Tabin Wildlife Reserve. http:/www.divesabah.com/tabinguide/inverts/htm.
  9. Poli A, Nicolau M, Simoes CMO, Nicolau RMR, Zanin M. Preliminary pharmacologic evaluation of crude whole plant extracts of Elephantopus scaber, Part I: in-vivo studies. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1992;37(1):71-6.
  10. Elephantopus scaber. http://www.prn2.usm.my/.
  11. Lin CC, Tsai CC, Yen MH. The Evaluation of hepatoprotective effects of Taiwan folk medicine ‘Teng-Khia-U’. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;45(3):151-6.
  12. Zaini A, Zainodin W. Anti-pyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Elephantopus scaber Linn. 9th Scientific Meeting of the Malaysian Society of Pharmacology and Physiology. Faculty of Medicine. University Malaya. Kuala Lumpur. 1991.
  13. Silva LB, Herath WHMW, Jennings RC. A new Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus scaber. Phytochemistry. 1982;21(5):1173-1175.
  14. Evacuasiany EW, Soegiaso NC, Badjongga HTS. The Choleretic activity test of ethanolic extract of Elephantopus scaber L. on adult male wistar rats. ASOMPS VI Sixth Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices. Bandung, Indonesia. 1989.
  15. Zaini A, Zainodin W. Anti-pyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Elephantopus scaber Linn. 9th Scientific Meeting of the Malaysian Society of Pharmacology and Physiology. Faculty of Medicine. University Malaya. Kuala Lumpur. 1991.
  16. Chen CP, Lin CC, Namba T. Screening of Taiwanese crude drugs for antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1989;27(3):285-95.
  17. But PPH, Hon PM, Cao H, et al. Sesquiterpene Lactons from Elephantopus scaber. Phytochemistry. 1997;44(1):113-6.
  18. But PPH, Hon PM, Cao H, Che CT. A new Sesquiterpene Lactone from Elephantopus mollis. Planta Medica. Natural Products and Medicinal Plant Research. Thieme Medical Publishers Inc: 1966;62.
  19. Sim KY, Lee HT. Constituent of Elephantopus scaber (Compositae). Phytochemistry. 1969;8(5):933-4.
  20. Burkill IH. A Dictionary of The Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula. Government of Malaysia and Singapore by the Ministry of Agriculture and coorperatives. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1966;2.
  21. Lin CC, Tsai CC, Yen MH. The Evaluation of hepatoprotective effects of Taiwan folk medicine ‘Teng-Khia-U’. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1995;45(3):151-6.
  22. Elephantopus scaber. http://www.prn2.usm.my/.
  23. Zhari I, Norhayati I, Jaafar L. Malaysian Herbal Monograph. Malaysian Monograph Committee. Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. 1999;1.

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