Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

Annual Congress on Traditional Medicine

From Wed, 12. May 2021 Until Thu, 13. May 2021

5th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics (ICMHI 2021

From Fri, 14. May 2021 Until Sun, 16. May 2021

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Cordia dichotoma Forst. f


Cordia obliqua Willd., Cordia myxa Roxb and of many writers (but not of L.), Cordia griffithii C. B. Clarke.   

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Sekendal, Sekendai, Petekat
 English: Sebestan Plum, Soap Berry, Fragrant Manjack
 India: Gonda, Lasora, Leshora
 Javanese: Kendal
 Sumatran: Nunang
 Thailand: Paw man

General Information


It is a tree of about 15metres high, found spanning from north India and south China to Australia and Polynesia. It grows wild in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia but is planted in the south.[1]

Plant Part Used

Bark, fruit, leaf [1] and seeds.[2]

Chemical Constituents

The chemical compounds: robinin, rutin, datiscoside, hesperidin, dehydrorobinetin, chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid isolated from C. francisci, C. myxa and C. serratifolia exhibit significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antiarthritic properties in rats.[2]

Traditional Used:

The bark decoction is used to treat dyspepsia. The powdered bark is applied to mouth ulcers. The bark is also used to treat fever, abscesses and tumours. It is mixed with the pomegranate rind to treat dysentery. The extract of the bark mixed with coconut water relieves severe colic.[1] 

The mucilage of the fruit treats coughs and other chest complaints. It is also used to treat uterus and urethra disorders. The kernel of the fruits in powder form is mixed with oil to heal tinea. The plant is also a diuretic and a laxative.[1]

Pre-Clinical Data


Anthelmintic activity

Extracts from C. dichotoma fruits were evaluated for their anthelmintic activities against earthworms, tapeworms and roundworms at concentrations of 1, 2.5 and 5.0%. All extracts showed concentration-dependent activities against these three types worms.[3]

Wound healing activity

Various organic fractions from the ethanolic extract of the fruits of Cordia dichotoma were screened for their wound healing activities using three different models viz. excision, incision and dead space wound models on either sex of albino rats. All the fractions showed significant activity.[4]

Anti-inflammatory activity

The anti-inflammatory effects of the fruit of Cordia myxa were examined on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.[5] Groups of colitic, normal and corresponding control rats were included in the study. Animals were sacrificed 5 days after administration of 4% acetic acid and 4 days of treatment with the fruits prepared as suspension in distilled water. Histologic examinations and myeloperoxidase activity assay were performed on the colonic tissues, while glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and total antioxidants as well as the concentrations of iron and trace elements (zinc, copper, selenium, manganese) were assayed in plasma, liver and colon. Histology of the colon of the induced animals treated with the Cordia myxa fruit preparation showed significant reversal of colitis in 50% of the animals. Fruit treatment also caused a significant decrease (50%) in levels of myeloperoxidase activity. The activities of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total antioxidants and the concentrations of the trace elements in plasma, colon and liver of these animals were restored to normal levels by the fruit treatment. The above results demonstrated that the anti-inflammatory properties of the Cordia myxa fruit preparation in the treatment of experimental colitis appears to be mediated through the fruit’s antioxidant effects.


No documentation

Teratogenic effects

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation

Read More

  1) Botanical Info


  1. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur.   Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. 2002; 1:216.
  2. Wiart, C. Medicinal Plants of the Asia-Pacific: Drugs for the Future? World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. Singapore. 2006; pp 512-4, and references cited therein.
  3. Kuppasta, I.J. & Nayak, V. Anthelmintic activity of fruits of Cordia dichotoma. Ind. J. Nat. Prod. 2003; 19 (3): 27-29. Abstract.
  4. Kuppasta I.J. & Nayak, P.V. Wound healing activity of Cordia dichotoma Forst. F. fruits. Natural Products Radiance. 2006; 5:99-102. Abstract.
  5. Al-Awadi FM, Srikumar, TS, Anim JT and Khan I. Antiinflammatory Effects of Cordia myxa Fruit on Expermentally Induced Colitis In Rats. Nutrition. 2001; 17 (5): 391-396

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More