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Annona muricata L.


Annona muricata L.





Vernacular Names


Durian belanda, durian benggala, durian makkah.

English Soursop.
Indonesia Sirsak, nangka belanda (Java), nangka seberang.
Thailand Thurian-thet, thurian-khaek, rian-nam.
Papua New Guinea Saua sap.

Guayabano (Tagalog), atti (Ibanag), llabanos (Bisaya).


Tiep banla, tiep barang.

Laos Khan thalot, khièp thét.
Vietnam Mang câù xiêm.
French Corossol épineux.

Geographical Distributions

Annona muricata is native to tropical America where it is an important fruit crop. It was one of the first fruit trees introduced to the old world after Columbus discovered America - the Spaniards brought it to the Philippines at an early date and it can be found in most tropical countries.


Annona muricata is a shrub or small tree which is 3-10 m tall, conforms to Troll's architectural model and branches from near the base.

The leaves are oblong-obovate, measuring 8-16 cm x 3-7 cm and short acuminate at the apex. The petiole is 3-7 mm long.

The flowers are regular, 1-2-flowered inflorescences and greenish-yellow. The pedicel is up to 2.5 cm long. There are 3 sepals which are triangular, persistent and about 4 mm long. There are 6 petals in 2 rows where the outer 3 are broadly ovate, measuring 3-5 cm x 2-4 cm while the other inner 3 measure 2-4 cm x 1.5-3.5 cm and with short claws at the base. The stamens are numerous, borne on a raised torus in many rows, measure 4-5 mm long while the filaments are densely pubescent. The ovaries are numerous, densely pubescent and confluent afterwards.

The ripe fruit is a pseudocarp, broadly ovoid or ellipsoid, measuring up to 10-20 cm x 15-35 cm, dark green and covered with soft spines 6 mm long and with fleshy and juicy white pulp. The blackish-brown shiny seeds are numerous, obovoid and measuring 2 cm x 1 cm.

Ecology / Cultivation

Annona muricata is the least hardy of the Annona species, which requires a warm and humid tropical climate. It grows at elevations up to 1000 m and as far as 25°S in sheltered sites. Growth and fruiting are set back severely by cold spells, and light frosts kill the tree. A dry season enhances leaf fall and synchronises extension growth and flowering to some extent. Yields may be higher under these conditions, provided that high humidity prevails during the period of fruit set; there are indications that, as for other Annona species, both very high and low humidities may be detrimental to fruit set. Where humidity tends to be low, a sheltered site is recommended to limit transpiration (also because the tree is shallow-rooted). Most soils are suitable for cultivation, but drainage should be good because the tree does not tolerate waterlogging.

Line Drawing / Photograph


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  1) Safety


  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 2: Edible fruits and nuts.

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