Croton tiglium L.

Croton tiglium L.





Vernacular Names

Malaysia Changkian, chemengkian, bua patu (Peninsular).
English Purging croton.
Indonesia Simalakian (Minangkabau), kemalakian (Sundanese), ceraken (Javanese).

Ma khaang (Northern), salot (Central).

Philippines Tuba (most dialects), saligau (Ilokano, Ibanag), tubang-makaisa (Bikol, Tagalog).
Cambodia Bat khlok.
Laos Mark tot.
Vietnam Ba d[aaj]u, m[aws]c v[as]t, cong kh[oo]i.

Geographical Distributions

Croton tiglium is from India and Sri Lanka, eastward to China, Indo-China, Thailand and throughout Malaysia.


Croton tiglium is a shrub or treelet that can reach up to 3 m tall.

The leaves are ovate, measuring 7.5-17 cm x 4-9.5 cm, with broadly rounded to attenuate base, with 2 sessile to distinct glands stalked on the margin, obtuse to acute at apex, with very shallowly serrate margin, with a few star-shaped hairs at the lower surface, basally 5-nerved, with caduceus stipules, awl-shaped and measuring 1.5-3.5 mm long.

The inflorescence is hairless while the flowers are staminate. The sepals are slightly hairless and with bearded tips while the petals are narrowly oblong and hairy. There are 15-20 hairless stamens with small disk glands. The sepals are villous at the base, petals are absent, with obscure disk, annular and with oblong ovary.

The fruit is obtusely trigonous, measure 2-2.5 cm in diametre, white and scabrid with star-shaped hairs.

Ecology / Cultivation

Croton tiglium is found in a wide range of vegetation and soil types, up to 1500 m altitude, planted around villages. It mainly flowers from October to May in Java.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.12(2): Medicinal and poisonous plants 2.