Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw

Endospermum diadenum (Miq.) Airy Shaw




Endospermum borneense Benth., Endospermum malaccense Benth., Endospermum beccarianum Pax & Hoffm.

Vernacular Names


Membulan (Peninsular), terbulan (Sarawak), sendok (Sabah).


Madang tapak kudu (Western Sumatra), kayu labuh (Palembang, Sumatra), garung (Kalimantan).


Taphong (Trat), lokhao (Trang), famo (Surat Thani).

Geographical Distributions

Endospermum diadenum is found in Peninsular Thailand, Peninsular Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo and intervening islands.


Endospermum diadenum is a medium-sized to fairly large tree that can reach up to 35(-40) m tall. Its bole is stout, columnar, measuring up to 150 cm in diametre and with thick buttresses. The surface of the bark is smooth, becomes wrinkled to scaly in patches and grey-fawn while the inner bark is thick and cream with orange flecks.

The leaves are non-peltate (sometimes peltate in saplings), obovate to broadly ovate or cordate, measuring 7-25 cm x 4-22 cm and palmately 3-9-veined. The midrib is with 3-5 pairs of lateral veins while there are 0-2 petioles with small glands at the apex.

The inflorescence is long and simple while the male ones are with short side-axes. The male flowers are with 9-11 stamens while the female flowers are with 2-3-celled ovary and a stigma 1.5 mm wide.

Ecology / Cultivation

Endospermum diadenum occurs in primary forests and particularly in secondary forests on low, undulating country or along streams and occasionally on permanently inundated sites, up to 1000 m altitude; sometimes associated with Sapium baccatum Roxb. The density of the wood is 300-650 kg/m3 at 12% moisture content.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No.5(1): Timber trees: Major commercial timbers.