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Peperomia pellucid Korth.

Synonyms

Piper pellucidum L, Peperomia exigua Miq.

Vernacular Names:

Malaysia: Ketumpangan air
English: Common pellucida, shiny bush [2]
Javanese: Rangu-rangu, sladanan, suruhan
Sundanese: Sasaladaan
Thailand: Kasang pak
Philippines: Pansit-pansitan [2]

General Information

Description

Peperomia pellucida is a dwarfy, green herb with fleshy and translucent stems grows to a height of 20 cm. It is tropical and occurs everywhere particularly as a weed in garden pots and grassy areas. [1]

Plant Part Used

Entire plant, leaf [1]

Chemical Constituents

The main components of the essential oil of P. pellucida are dillapiol (39.7%) and trans-caryophyllene (10%). [3]

Pellucidin A and dillapiol have been isolated from the aerial parts of P. pellucida. The previous chemical investigations have reported the occurrence of apiol, 2,4,5-trimethoxystyrene, flavones, flavonols and phytosterols. [4]

The phytochemical screening of the plant gave positive tests for anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides and tannins . [5] In addition, the methanolic extract indicated the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and triterpenoids. [6]

The bioassay-guided fractionation of ethanolic extract of aerial parts of P. pellucida gave linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid. The water fraction obtained after elution of a Celite column with hexane, ethylacetate, ethanol and water yielded Na, K, Ca and Mg cations which represented about 25% of the water fraction. [7]

Other chemical constituents include: essential oil and flavonoids [6], peperomins A-E, acacetin, apigenin, isovitexin, pellucidatin, 7,8-trans-8,8’-trans-7’8’-cis-7,7’-bis(5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8-acetoxymethyl-8’-hydroxymethyltetrahydrofuran, 7,8-trans-8,8’-trans-7’,8’-cis-7-(5-methoxy-3,4-methylenedioxyphenyl)-7’-(4-hydroxy-3,5 dimethoxyphenyl)-8,8’-diacetoxymethyltetrahydrofuran, sesamin, isoswertisin, campesterol and sigmasterol. [8],[9]

Traditional Used:

Malays are believed to have used this plant as a treatment for rheumatism and fatigue. In the Philippine Islands, the plant is applied as a poultice to heal abscesses and boils. It is reputed to be a remedy for asthma. An infusion of the plant is claimed to have been used to treat convulsions. [1]

In Java, the crushed leaves are used medicinally as an application to treat fever and headache while the extract is used to relieve abdominal pain and colic. [1]

Pre-Clinical Data

Pharmacology

Analgesic activity

The methanol extract of P. pellucida aerial parts, given orally to Swiss mice at doses ranging from 70 to 210 mg/kg, showed a significant and dose-dependent analgesic effect on acetic acid-induced writhing over a period of 20 min. [5]

 

An aqueous extract of the aerial part of P. pellucida was tested for analgesic activity (abdominal writhes and hot plate) in rats and mice. In the acetic acid-induced writhing test, the plant extract demonstrated a significant analgesic effect at 400 mg/kg dose. In the hot-plate test, an analgesic effect was observed at concentartions of 100 and 200 mg/kg. [10]

Antibacterial activity

The methanolic extracts of Hygrophila stricta and P. pellucida were fractionated into petrol, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate and butanol. The fractions exhibited a higher antibacterial activity than the crude extracts. The petrol fraction of H. stricta and the butanol fraction of P. pellucida were particularly good with values of inhibition zones of 18-20 mm. [6]

Anticancer activity

The peperomins have cytotoxic or anticancer activity in vitro on three cancer cell lines. [9]

Anti-inflammatory activity

No previous literature data have confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of P. pellucida herb. So on this basis, an investigation to this effect was carried out on an aqueous extract of this plant. The oral administration of 200 and 400 mg/kg of crude aqueous extracts in rats and mice, exhibited an anti-inflammatory activity in both the carrageenin test and the arachidonic acid test. The results showed that the aqueous extract presented a dose-dependent anti-inflammatory activity at all concentrations tested. [10]

Toxicities

No documentation

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

The plant has a strong mustard-like odour and may cause asthma-like systems in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions to the herb. [8]

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

The plant interferes with prostaglandin synthesis. Avoid use because of lack of information regarding pregnancy and lactation. [8]

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation

Geriatrics

No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation

Interactions

Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation

Contraindications

Contraindications

The patients with known hypersensitivity reactions to any of the components of the herb should avoid using. [8]

Case Reports

No documentation

References

    1. Herbal Medicine Research Centre, Institute for Medical Research, Kuala Lumpur.  Compendium of Medicinal Plants Used in Malaysia. 2002. 2:207.
    2. Wiart, C. Medicinal Plants of The Asia-Pacific: Drugs for the Future?World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore. 2006. pp 43.
    3. da Silva, M.H. et al. The essential oils of Peperomia pellucida Kunth and P. circinnata Link var. circinnata. Flavour and Fragrance Journal. 1999. 14:312-314. Abstract.
    4. Bayma, J. D. et al. A dimeric ArC2 compound from Peperomia pellucida. Phytochemistry. 2000. 55:779-782, and references cited therein.
    5. Aziba, P.I. et al. Analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida aerial parts in mice. Fitoterapia 2001. 72:57-58.
    6. Khan, M.R. & Omoloso, A.D. Antibacterial activity of Hygrophila stricta and Peperomia pellucida. Fitoterapia. 2002. 73:251-254.
    7. Heinrich, M. et al. Bioactive Compounds from the Mixe Indian Medicinal Plant Peperomia pellucida. J. Mex. Chem. Soc. 1998. 42:245-248.
    8. Peperomia pellucida, http://www.drugs.com/npp/peperomia-pellucida.html, accessed on 29 December 2007.
    9. Xu, S. et al. Bioactive Compounds from Peperomia pellucida. J. Nat. Prod. 2006. 69:247-50.
    10. Arrigoni-Blank, M de F, et al. Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Peperomia pellucida (L.) HBK (Piperaceae). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2004. 91:215-8.

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