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Parartocarpus venenosus (Zoll. & Moritzi) Becc.

Parartocarpus venenosus (Zoll. & Moritzi) Becc.




Gymnartocarpus venenosa (Zoll. & Moritzi) Boerl., Parartocarpus triandra (J.J. Smith) J.J. Smith, Parartocarpus woodii (Merr.) Merr.

Vernacular Names

Malaysia Ara berteh paya (Peninsular).
Indonesia Bulu ongko (Javanese), pejatai (West Kalimantan), purut (Sundanese).
Philippines Malanangka (Filipino), buratu (Ibanag), pangi (Iloko).

Le khaem, phaya rak lueang (Peninsular).

Geographical Distributions

Parartocarpus venenosus is found in Peninsular Thailand, throughout the Malesian region (except for the Lesser Sunda Islands), and the Solomon Islands.


Parartocarpus venenosus is an evergreen, monoecious, medium-sized to large tree that can reach up to 45 m tall. The bole is usually straight, cylindrical or fluted. It is branchless for up to 16 m, measuring up to 90 cm in diametre and occasionally with short buttresses. The surface of the bark is smooth or dippled to slightly scaly, prominently lenticellate, greyish-white, often brownish or yellowish tinged and with faint hoop marks. The inner bark is fibrous, orange with cream or white-mottled and with copious white latex.

The leaves are arranged spirally, simple and entire. The stipules are caducous, leaving an intrapetiolar scar.

The inflorescence is an axillary, headed and spherical syncarp, with a basal involucre of 3-4(-8) bracts, solitary or paired, unisexual or rarely bisexual. The stamens and ovaries are sunken in numerous cavities. The receptacle is armed with numerous, spinous, conical and obtuse or truncate processes. Perianth is absent. The male head is with 1-3 stamens in each cavity while the pistillode is absent. The female head is with 1-locular ovary which contains a single ovule, lance-shaped or with fringed stigma.

The fruit is a syncarp that is formed by enlargement of the female head. Seedling is with epigeal germination. The cotyledons are emergent and fleshy while the hypocotyl is elongated, with leaves folded lengthwise where the first 2 are opposite while subsequent ones are arranged spirally.

Ecology / Cultivation

Parartocarpus occurs scattered in lowlands to submontane or rarely montane, primary, evergreen rainforests, up to 1800 m altitude. Parartocarpus venenosus is a characteristic element of peat-swamps, freshwater and tidal forests, also occurs in heavy clay or even sandy soils in well-drained locations.

Line Drawing / Photograph



  1. Plant Resources of South-East Asia No. 5(3): Timber trees: Lesser-known timbers.

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