Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

Annual Congress on Traditional Medicine

From Wed, 12. May 2021 Until Thu, 13. May 2021

5th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics (ICMHI 2021

From Fri, 14. May 2021 Until Sun, 16. May 2021

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Toddalia asiatica


Toddalia asiatica


No documentation

Vernacular Name

Toddalia, orange climber, ranklemoentjie, gwambadzi, cockspur orange, gato, rukato.


Toddalia asiatica has a long history of use in Africa and other regions of the world for treating various conditions.  Different parts of the plant have been used such as the fruit as a cough medicine; root and bark for malaria and cholera; roots for treatment of digestive disorders.  Other uses include fabric dyes.

T. asiatica is a woody liana which uses other trees in order to grow in an upward direction.  In some areas it can grow to heights of 8-10m tall with stems that produce large thorns that attach to the plant near which it grows.  Other, smaller thorns cover the twigs and smallest stems. The trifoliate leaves have a lemony scent when they are crushed, are small and usually darker green.  The plant produces small yellow-green flowers which produce small citrus-like fruits that are orange in color and are reminiscent of orange peel in taste and feel.

Origin / Habitat

T. asiatica is native to Asia, but found growing in South Africa and Madagascar. It is a strong woody vine that grows readily in clay soils that receive a good bit of annual rainfall.  It is often found in wooded areas near rivers or other free running water source.

Chemical Constituents

Alkaloids, including dihydronitidine; furanocoumarin (including toddalolactone, toddanone and isopimpinellin).[1],[2],[3]

Plant Part Used


Medicinal Uses



Antibacterial, antifungal






Most Frequently Reported Uses


Antibacterial, antifungal



Dosage Range 

As an infusion: Place 30-60gm (1-2 ounces) of plant material in 473mL (1 pint) hot water. Let simmer for 10-15 minutes. Strain and drink 30-60mL (1-2 fluidounces), 2-3 times daily.

Most Common Dosage

There is no recommended common dosage to report

Standardization Dosage

No standardization known.



Traditional uses of T. asiatica include against a wide range of pathogens, including viruses, which is supported by laboratory research.[4] T. asiatica has been reported to have potent antiviral activities against H1N1 virus. Although the best antiviral activity of T. asiatica was observed with co-treatment of influenza virus infection, it remained effective even when administrated 24 hours before and after the initiation of infection. The authors concluded that T. asiatica extract could be a good candidate for treatment of H1N1 influenza.[5]

Laboratory studies also support the antibacterial and antifungal uses of T. asiatica, and support its traditional uses against malaria.[6],[7]

Extracts of T. asiatica are also reported to have cytotoxicity against various cancer cells in vitro.[8],[9]  T. asiatica also has been reported to have spasmolytic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects,[10] and Further research in these areas is needed.


There is no clinical evidence to support the traditional uses of this herb.

Interaction and Depletions

Interaction with other Herbs

No documentation

Interaction with Drugs

Based on pharmacology, use with caution in individuals with bleeding disorders or those taking blood-thinning medications such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin).

Precautions and Contraindications

Side effects

T. asiatica has been reported safe in recommended doses.

Discontinue if allergy occurs.


Not to be used by pregnant or nursing women.

Age limitation

Not to be used with children.

Adverse reaction

T. asiatica has been reported to inhibit platelet aggregation in laboratory studies – use only under the supervision of a doctor if a bleeding disorder exists or taking blood-thinning medications such as aspirin or warfarin (Coumadin).[11]

Read More

  1)  South Africa Herbs


  1. Jain SC, Pandey MK, Upadhyay RK, Kumar R, Hundal G, Hundal MS. Alkaloids from Toddalia aculeata. Phytochemistry. May2006;67(10):1005-1010.
  2. Guo S, Li S, Peng Z, Ren X. Isolation and identification of active constituent of Toddalia asiatica in cardiovascular system. Zhong Yao Cai. Oc1998;21(10):515-516.
  3. Lakshmi V, Kapoor S, Pandey K, Patnaik GK. Spasmolytic activity of Toddalia asiatica Var. floribunda. Phytother Res. May2002;16(3):281-282.
  4. Orwa JA, Jondiko IJ, Minja RJ, Bekunda M. The use of Toddalia asiatica (L) Lam. (Rutaceae) in traditional medicine practice in East Africa. J Ethnopharmacol. 17Jan2008;115(2):257-262.
  5. Lu SY, Qiao YJ, Xiao PG, Tan XH. Identification of antiviral activity of Toddalia asiatica against influenza type A virus. Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. Jul2005;30(13):998-1001.
  6. Duraipandiyan V, Ignacimuthu S. Antibacterial and antifungal activity of Flindersine isolated from the traditional medicinal plant, Toddalia asiatica (L.) Lam. J Ethnopharmacol. 25Jun2009;123(3):494-498.
  7. Muregi FW, Ishih A, Miyase T, et al. Antimalarial activity of methanolic extracts from plants used in Kenyan ethnomedicine and their interactions with chloroquine (CQ) against a CQ-tolerant rodent parasite, in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 20Apr2007;111(1):190-195.
  8. Iwasaki H, Okabe T, Takara K, Toda T, Shimatani M, Oku H. Tumor-selective cytotoxicity of benzo[c]phenanthridine derivatives from Toddalia asiatica Lam. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 23Jul2009. [Epub ahead of print]
  9. Iwasaki H, Oku H, Takara R, et al. The tumor specific cytotoxicity of dihydronitidine from Toddalia asiatica Lam. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. Oct2006;58(4):451-459.
  10. Hao XY, Peng L, Ye L, Huang NH, Shen YM. A study on anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of alkaloids of Toddalia asiatica. Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Bao. Nov200445;2(6):450-2.
  11. Tsai IL, Wun MF, Teng CM, Ishikawa T, Chen IS. Anti-platelet aggregation constituents from Formosan Toddalia asiatica. Phytochemistry. Aug1998;48(8):1377-1382.

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More