Compilation of herbal plants (description, geographical distribution, taxonomy, line drawings), biodiversity and herbarium.

Read More
Research & Publication

Description of herbal and T&CM research, searchable publication and process from medicinal plant discovery to clinical trial in producing a high-quality registered herbal drug.

Read More
Traditional & Complementary Medicine (T&CM)


Definition and description of therapies, policy, training and education, research in the practise of (T&CM) and integrated medicine system.           

Read More


News Update

Announcement & Advertisement

Forthcoming Events

Annual Congress on Traditional Medicine

From Wed, 12. May 2021 Until Thu, 13. May 2021

5th International Conference on Medical and Health Informatics (ICMHI 2021

From Fri, 14. May 2021 Until Sun, 16. May 2021

International Conference on Traditional Medicine and Phytochemistry 2021

From Mon, 12. July 2021 Until Wed, 14. July 2021

Asian Symposium on Medicinal Plants and Spices XVII (2020)

From Tue, 17. August 2021 Until Thu, 19. August 2021

Eleusine indica


Cynodon indicus, Cynosurus indicus, Eleusine gracilis, Eleusin marginata, Eragrostis indica, Juncus bulbosus, Juncus loureiroanus  [2] [3] [4].

Vernacular Names:


Rumput Sambau

English Crowsfoot Grass (Australia); Goosegrass (USA); Wire Grass, Yard Grass

Rumput Belulang


Bag-angan, Barangan (Bicolomo); Padpad (Bisaya); Palagtiki (Cebuano); Labba-labba, Parangis, Sabung-sabungan (Ilocano); Palagtiki (Ilongo); Bakis-bakisan, Kabit-kabit, Parag-is, sabong-sabongan, sambali (Tagalog)


Yaa Teen-ka


Nya Phak Kole


Sin-ngo-let-kyar, Sin-ngo-myet




Jangali marua, Jhingari, Nandimukha, Nandiaa (Orissa); Mahaar, Naachni (Maharashtra); Thippa Ragi (Tamil Nadu)


Binna Challa, Chapra, Gaicha, Malangakuri


Pied de Poule

Spanish Grama de Caballo
Malawi Chinsangwi, Chigombe, Kanggodza, Chipikamongu [2] [5] [6]

General Information


Eleusine indica is a member of the Poaceae family. It is a smooth or slightly hairy, tufted, prostrate to ascending grass reaching up to 90cm tall. The stem is white or pale green, is laterally flattened, smooth or with a few long hairs along the edges. The leaf sheath measures 6-9cm long, flattened laterally with a few long hairs at the collar. The leaf blade is flat or folded, linear-lanceolate measuring 10-30cm long and 3-6mm wide with almost parallel margins and a rather blunt tip. It has a few scattered hairs on the upper surface. The ligule is membranous with a jagged edge. The long hairs occur on the margins at the junction of the blade and sheath. The inflorescence is digitate, profusely branching at the base. The terminal whorl of 3-6 spikes measures 4-8cm long and 3-6mm wide. It often has 1 to 2 additional spikes slightly below the others. The numerous spikelets are sessile, awnless measure 4-5mm long, laterally compressed, and crowded into 2 rows along the underside of the flattened rachis. The fruit is a red-brown caryopsis measuring about 1.5mm long, oblong-ovate with conspicuous ridges. [1]

Plant Part Used

Whole plants including the seeds [2] [5]

Chemical Constituents

3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-sitosterol; schaftoside; vitexin [7]

Traditional Used:

Gastrointestinal Diseases

In Central Sumatra E. indica is used to treat worms while in Indo-china, it is being used to treat liver complains and also serve as a stomachic. The Colombian takes a decoction of the whole plant to relieve diarrhoae and dysentery. The plant is also used to treat liver complaints like jaundice in children where the decoction of the seeds is used by the Venezuelans. [2] [5]

Respiratory Diseases

The African nations used this plant to treat respiratory symptoms like cough and heamoptysis. In Trinidad, it is even used to treat pneumonia.[6]

Other Uses

Juice extracted from the leaves is given to women to ease the delivery of the placenta as prescribed in Peninsular Malaysia. It is considered a sudorific and is used to treat fever. Decoction of the whole plant is also a diuretic and is used to treat urinary infection. [2] [5] [6] [8]

Pre-Clinical Data


Anti-inflammatory activity

De Melo et al. studied the anti-inflammatory activities of the aerial parts of E. indica. They found that 400microg/kg of schaftoside and vitexin isolated form E. indica inhibited 62% and 80% of lung neutrophil influx, respectively in mice.


The leaves are cyanogenic especially when wilted and is considered poisonous to mammals. The seeds has higher content of HCN and under certain conditions the plant may accumulate toxic levels of nitrates.

Clinical Data

Clinical Trials

No documentation

Adverse Effects in Human:

No documentation

Used in Certain Conditions

Pregnancy / Breastfeeding

No documentation

Age Limitations

Neonates / Adolescents

No documentation


No documentation

Chronic Disease Conditions

No documentation


Interactions with drugs

No documentation

Interactions with Other Herbs / Herbal Constituents

No documentation



No documentation

Case Reports

No documentation


  1. Dr. K.E. Mueller Field Problems of Tropical Rice International Rice Research Institute Manila 1989 pg. 134
  2. Marita Ignacio Galinato, Keith Moody, Colin M. Piggin Upland Rice Weeds of South and Southeast Asia International Rice Research Institute Manila 1999 pg. 82
  3. Katy Mallett (Australian Biological Resources Study) Poaceae 3, Volume 44 CSIRO Publishing Collingwood pg. 417
  4. Merril: Loureiro’s “Flora Cochinchinensis” in Tansactions American Philosophical Soceity (Vol. 24, Part 2, 1935) American Philosophical Society Philadelphia 1935 pg. 78
  5. C.P. Khare Indian Medicinal Plants: An Illustrated Dictionary Springer-Verlag Berlin 2007 pg. 236
  6. Brain Morris Chewa Medical Botany: A Study of Herbalism in Southern Malawi LIT Verlag Hamburg pg 315-316
  7. De Melo GO, Muzitano MF, Legora-Machado A, Almeida TA, De Oliveira DB, Kaiser CR, Koatz VL, Costa SS. C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation. Planta Med. 2005 Apr;71(4):362-3.
  8. I.H. Burkill A Dictionary of Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula Volume 1 Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperative Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 1966 pg 378

Explore Further

Consumer Data

Consumer data including medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs and interactions and depletions.                                    

Read More
Professional Data

Professional data organized into medicinal herbs, dietary supplement monographs, health condition monographs, T&CM herbs, formulas, health conditions, interactions and depletions.

Read More
International Data

We offer International linkages to provide extensive content pertaining to many facets of T&CM as well as Integrated Medicine. Please register for access.    

Read More