Evaluation of Syzygium Species as Natural Preservative for Nutraceutical or Cosmeceutical Products


Ong B.K., Norulaiman Y., Norhayati A. Saiful Azmi J., Rohana S., Nor Azah M.A., Vimala
S., lhsan Safwan K., Ilyanie Y., Khoo M.G.H., Mohd Radzi A. & Mohd Irman Shah M.
Medicinal Plants Division, Forest Research institute Malaysia, 52109 Kepong, Selangor
Tel: 03-62797370 E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.




Evaluation of Syzygium Species as Natural Preservative for Nutraceutical or Cosmeceutical Products


Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Seminar (MAPS 2010)


3rd August - 4th August (2010)

Place Held

Forest Research Institute Malaysia(FRIM)


Syzygium is a genus of about 500 species from the family Myrtaceae. They are found mainly in tropical arid subtropical rainforests. Plants of this genus are reported to be strongly antiseptic, astringent, expectorant, antioxidant and with anti-viral properties. Preservatives are substances with anti-microbial and/or anti-oxidant properties that incorporated into products to protect against immature microbe-induced spoilage and/or oxidant-induced chemical alteration that may took place. In this study, selected species of Syzygium were evaluated for preservative properties. Eight plant extracts obtained from three Syzygium species; namely, S. aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry (bunga cengkih), S. malaccense (L.) Merr, & L.M. Perry (jambu bol) and S. jambos (L.) Aiston (jambu mawar) were evaluated for antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The antioxidant activities were determined using Superoxide scavenging assay. DPPH radical scavenging assay and tyrosinase inhibition assay. Extracts with antioxidant activities were evaluated for antimicrobial activities via minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) test and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) test. Extracts SAF and SML which showed positive results for antioxidant and antimicrobial test were selected for evaluation of microbial preservation efficacy in product formulation. The extracts were tested using methodology adopted from British pharmacopoeia 2009. The testing microorganisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC9O27), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC6538), Escherichia coli (ATCC8739) and Candida aibicans (ATCC10231). The product formulation tested included hair shampoo, cosmeceutical product for topical application used and neutraceutical product for oral use. The chemical preservative used as positive control for cosmeceutical product was Euxyl-300 and for neutraceutical product was Sodium benzoate. For the hair shampoo formulation, SAF and SML extracts (0.5% v/v) exhibited preservation potential towards P. aeruginosa. Both extracts showed a reduction of 99.9% in the number of viable microorganism within two days and no recovery up to 28 days. As for the oral used nutraceutical product, SAF extract (0.5% v/v) showed preservative potential towards P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, E. coil and C. albicans. The SAF extract showed a reduction of 99.9% in the number of viable microorganisms within seven days. Eugenol was one of the major compounds in SAF. An HPLC analysis using eugenol as the reference compound has been developed for the extract. Toxicity assessment for SAF extract was determined using cytotoxicity (Vero and WRL-68 cell lines) and animal toxicity tests. Acute oral toxicity test indicated SAF extract was nontoxic at 2000 mg/kg body weight of mice.


Syzygium aromaticum; Syzygium malaccense; Syzygium jambos: preservative properties; antioxidant; antimicrobial


Session 3: Oral 14


Harnessing the Tropical heritage: Recent Advances in R&D and commercialization