Plant Part Used Rhizome Active Constituents A. galanga essential oil A, A. galanga essential oil B, kampheride, alpinin, galangin, methyl cinnamate , cincole,1’-acetoxychavicol acetate, 1’-hydroxychavicol acetate, galantin-3-methyl ether, a-terpineol, 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, trans-coniferyl diacetate,trans-p-courmaryl diacetate, a-bergamotene, b-bisabolene, borneol, borneol acetate, butanol acetate, campene, carveol I, carveol II, chavicol acetate, citronellol acetate, a-copaene, curcumene, p-cymene, p-cymenol, eugenol methyl […]

Lada Hitam

Plant Part Used Dried fruits Active Constituents Monoterpenes hydrocarbons (max. 80%): sabinene, beta-pinene, limonene, terpinene, alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-carene, monoterpene derivative (borneol, carvone, carvacrol, 1,8-cineol, linalool); sesquiterpenes (beta-caryophyllene, humulene, beta-bisabolone & caryophyllene oxide, ketone); phenylether (eugenol, myristicine, safrole); odorants (linalool, alpha-phellandrene, limonene, myrcene and alpha-pinene); branched chain aldehydes (3-methylbutanal, methylpropanal), heterocyclic (2-isopropyl-3-methoxypyrazine, 2,3-diethyl-5-methylpyrazine); piperine:5-(2,4-dioxymethylene-phenyl)-hexa-2,4-dienoic acid (piperinic […]

Bunga Pakma

Plant Part Used Perianth lobar or the fresh or dried flower bud. (1) Active Constituents No information is available. Introduction Rafflesia hasseltii is a family of Rafflesiaeae. The plant has no apparent differentiation of leaves, stems or root and does not contain chlorophyll. They are true parasites; they receive all nourishment from fine root hairs […]

Selayak Hitam

Plant Part Used Leaves, roots of the plant Active Constituents Goniothalamin, Acetogenin, 5-hydroxy-7-phenylhepta-2,6-dienoic acid d-lactone, 6-styryl-2-pyrone, goniodiol-7-monoacetate. Introduction G. macrophyllus is a shrub growing 3 to 5 meters high and usually has only one main stem. The leaves are coriaceous, large without stipules and alternate. They have a characteristic and diagnostically important ‘granular’ appearance abaxially, […]

Ubi Jaga

Plant Part Used Leaves, fruits and rhizomes Active Constituents Stigmasterol, sitosterol, campesterol. (1) Introduction Smilax myosotiflora is a herbaceous climber; the stem is slender but very tough and rigid, branching loosely, light green and very smooth. The plant has a presence of nodes and internodes about 2-15 cm long. Occasionally rooting occurs at the nodes […]


Plant Part Used Rhizomes Active Constituents Acolamone, acoradin, acoragermacrone, acoramone, acorenol, acoric acid, acorine, acorone, acoroxide, asaraldehyde, asaronaldehyde, asarone, b-asarone (isoasarone), azulene, calamene, calameone, calamenol, calamenone, calamol, camphene, camphor, choline, cineole, dextrin, dextrose, dimethylamine, eugenol, n-heptylic acid, isoacolamone, isoacarone, linaIol, methylamine, methyleugenol, palmitic acid, pasarone, pinene, trimethylamine, aristolene, asarones (2,4,5-trimethoxypropenylbenzenes), cis-asarone, trans-asarone, c-asarone, asaryllaldehyde, (-)-cadala-1,4,9-triene(sesquiterpenic […]

Gelengang Besar

Plant Part Used Leaf and seeds Active Constituents Physcione, kaempferol, kaempferol 3-gentiobioside, aloe emodin, chrysophanol, deoxycoelulatin, sennoside A, sennoside B, sennoside C, sennoside D, rhein, rhein methyl ester diacetate, beta-sitosterol, isochrysophanol, 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hydroxyantron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1-hydroxyantron, chrysoeriol-7-O-(2″-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, rhamnetin-3-O-(2″-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, emodin, galactomannan, chrysophanic acid, anthraquinones glycosides. (1) , (2) , (3) Introduction Cassia alata L., called […]

Mata Pelanduk

Plant Part Used Leaves Introduction Ardisia elliptica is a tropical shrub that can reach heights of up to 8 meters. The plants are characterized by a single stem, producing short, perpendicular branches. The leafstalks are 6-8 mm long and reddish in color. The umbellate flowering develop in the leaf axils of branch leaves. The petals […]

Tutup Bumi

Plant Part Used Leaf, stem, whole plant. Active Constituents Dotriacontanol, epifriedelinol, triacontanol, pottassium chloride, 11,13-dihydrodeoxyelephantopin, 11,13-dihydroelephantopin, stigmosterol, epifriedelanol, lupeol, sesquiterpene lactones (deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin), mixture of triacontan-1-ol and dotriacontan-1-ol, luteolin-7-glucoside, lupeol acetate, molephantin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-methoxyphantomolin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-hydroxyphantomolin. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) Introduction Elephantopus scaber Linn. or tutup bumi is a wild shrub about 20-40cm […]


Plant Part Used Seed and leaves Active Constituents galactomannans (20%)-soluble dietary fibre (SDF), gum (19.0%), hemicellulose (23.6%), cellulose (8.9%), lignin (2.4%), diosgenin, tigogenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, neogitogenin, smilagenin, sarsasapogenin, yuccagenin, fenugreekine, Lipids (7.9%), trigonelline (0.13%), choline (0.05%), gentianine, carpaine, yellow colouring materials, trigocoumarin, trigomethylcoumarin, anthraquinone glycoside/piperidine, tannins, cyanogens glycosides, volatile oil ( Introduction Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum […]