Gelengang Besar

Plant Part Used Leaf and seeds Active Constituents Physcione, kaempferol, kaempferol 3-gentiobioside, aloe emodin, chrysophanol, deoxycoelulatin, sennoside A, sennoside B, sennoside C, sennoside D, rhein, rhein methyl ester diacetate, beta-sitosterol, isochrysophanol, 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hydroxyantron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1-hydroxyantron, chrysoeriol-7-O-(2″-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, rhamnetin-3-O-(2″-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, emodin, galactomannan, chrysophanic acid, anthraquinones glycosides. (1) , (2) , (3) Introduction Cassia alata L., called […]

Mata Pelanduk

Plant Part Used Leaves Introduction Ardisia elliptica is a tropical shrub that can reach heights of up to 8 meters. The plants are characterized by a single stem, producing short, perpendicular branches. The leafstalks are 6-8 mm long and reddish in color. The umbellate flowering develop in the leaf axils of branch leaves. The petals […]

Tutup Bumi

Plant Part Used Leaf, stem, whole plant. Active Constituents Dotriacontanol, epifriedelinol, triacontanol, pottassium chloride, 11,13-dihydrodeoxyelephantopin, 11,13-dihydroelephantopin, stigmosterol, epifriedelanol, lupeol, sesquiterpene lactones (deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin), mixture of triacontan-1-ol and dotriacontan-1-ol, luteolin-7-glucoside, lupeol acetate, molephantin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-methoxyphantomolin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-hydroxyphantomolin. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) Introduction Elephantopus scaber Linn. or tutup bumi is a wild shrub about 20-40cm […]


Plant Part Used Seed and leaves Active Constituents galactomannans (20%)-soluble dietary fibre (SDF), gum (19.0%), hemicellulose (23.6%), cellulose (8.9%), lignin (2.4%), diosgenin, tigogenin, yamogenin, gitogenin, neogitogenin, smilagenin, sarsasapogenin, yuccagenin, fenugreekine, Lipids (7.9%), trigonelline (0.13%), choline (0.05%), gentianine, carpaine, yellow colouring materials, trigocoumarin, trigomethylcoumarin, anthraquinone glycoside/piperidine, tannins, cyanogens glycosides, volatile oil ( Introduction Fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum […]


Plant Part Used Roots, Stems (1) Active Constituents Alkaloid, Berberine, Fibleucin, Delta(8,9)-decarboxyfibleucin, 6-hydroxyfibraurin, Fibraurin. (2) ,, (3) , (4) Introduction The plant is a woody climber of the family Menispermaceae. It was used as a yellow dye in Malaysia and Brunei. The roots are used medicinally. Standardization No standard marker has been reported. Other standard […]


Plant Part Used Leaves Active Constituents Levorotatory borneol, cineole, limonene, palmitic, myristic acids, sesquiterpene alcohol, dimethyl ether, pyrocatechic tannin, glycoside, levorotatory camphor , blumealactone A, blumealactone B, blumealactone C, xanthoxylin, crytomeridiol, dihydroquercetin-4′,7-dimethyl ether, (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin-4,7-dimethyl ether, (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin-4-methyl ether, dihydroquercetin-4′-methyl ether, (2R,3R)-dihydroquercetin-4-methyl ether, (2R,3R)-7,5′-dimethoxy-3,5,2′-trihydroxyflavanone, blumeatin, quercetin, rhamnetin, tamarixetin, ombuine, velutin, luteolin, luteolin-7-methyl ether, stigmasterol, beta-sitosterol. (1) , […]


Plant Part Used Leaves Active Constituents indoles, mitragynaline, orynantheidaline, mitragynalinic acid, corynantheidalinic, mitragynaline, speciogynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, 7alpha-hydroxy-7H-mitragynine, isocorynoxeine, and mitralactonine were isolated. In addition, a porphine derivative, phaeophorbide. (-)-9-methoxymitralactonine, 3-dehydromitragynine and (-)-Epicatechin. (1) , (2) , (3) , Introduction M. speciosa Korth is a tree growing to about 50 feet tall with a spread of […]

Serai Wangi

Plant Part Used Leaves (1) Active Constituents Citronellic, Borneol, Citronellol, Geraniol, Nerol, Citral, Citronellal, Camphene, Dipentene, Limonene, -terpineol, citronellol, methyl heptenone, dipentene, geraniol, limonene, nerol, farnesol, Borneol, bournonene, camphene, camphor, 1-carvotanacetone, gamma-3-carene, citronellybutyrate, D-citronellal, D-citronellolacetate, D-citronellol-N-butyrate, p-cymene, elemol, ethanol, furferol, geranylactetae, geranylbutyrate, geranylformate, hexanol, limonene, linalol, linalylacetate, methyleugenol, methylisoeugenol, methylheptenone, menthol, myrcene, nerol, nerolidol, cis-ocimene, […]

Serai Makan

Plant Part Used Stalks and Leaves Active Constituents Stereoisomeric monterpene aldehydes; trans isomer geranial (40-62%), cis isomer neral (25-38%), nerol, limonene, linalool, beta-caryphyllene, C. flexuosus, alcohols (20-30% cotronellol, geranoil), aldehydes (15% geranial, 10% neral, 5% citronellal), myrecene, dipentene, , nerol, citronellol, farnesol, linalooletc, geraniol, Citral a, Citral b, furfural, isovaleraidehyde, citronellal, decylaldehyde, farnesal, diacetyl, methyl […]


Plant Part Used Leaves, twigs, and roots Active Constituents The leaves have beta-sitosterol; lupeol; friedelin; 2-amino-0-methyl-benzyl alcohol; 2-(2’-amino-benzylamino)-0-methyl-benzyl alcohol; 2-amino-benzyl alcohol; 2-(2’-amino-benzylamino)-benzyl alcohol, justicineand high potassium content. The root contains justicine and volatile oil. (1) , (2) , (3) Introduction Gendarussa vulgaris probably originated from China. However, nowadays it grows throughout southeastern Asia and Malaysia. […]