Serai Wangi

Plant Part Used Leaves (1) Active Constituents Citronellic, Borneol, Citronellol, Geraniol, Nerol, Citral, Citronellal, Camphene, Dipentene, Limonene, -terpineol, citronellol, methyl heptenone, dipentene, geraniol, limonene, nerol, farnesol, Borneol, bournonene, camphene, camphor, 1-carvotanacetone, gamma-3-carene, citronellybutyrate, D-citronellal, D-citronellolacetate, D-citronellol-N-butyrate, p-cymene, elemol, ethanol, furferol, geranylactetae, geranylbutyrate, geranylformate, hexanol, limonene, linalol, linalylacetate, methyleugenol, methylisoeugenol, methylheptenone, menthol, myrcene, nerol, nerolidol, cis-ocimene, […]

Gelengang Besar

Plant Part Used Leaf and seeds Active Constituents Physcione, kaempferol, kaempferol 3-gentiobioside, aloe emodin, chrysophanol, deoxycoelulatin, sennoside A, sennoside B, sennoside C, sennoside D, rhein, rhein methyl ester diacetate, beta-sitosterol, isochrysophanol, 4,5-dihydroxy-2-hydroxyantron, 4,5-dihydroxy-1-hydroxyantron, chrysoeriol-7-O-(2″-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, rhamnetin-3-O-(2″-O- beta-D-mannopyranosyl)- beta-D-allopyranoside, emodin, galactomannan, chrysophanic acid, anthraquinones glycosides. (1) , (2) , (3) Introduction Cassia alata L., called […]

Serai Makan

Plant Part Used Stalks and Leaves Active Constituents Stereoisomeric monterpene aldehydes; trans isomer geranial (40-62%), cis isomer neral (25-38%), nerol, limonene, linalool, beta-caryphyllene, C. flexuosus, alcohols (20-30% cotronellol, geranoil), aldehydes (15% geranial, 10% neral, 5% citronellal), myrecene, dipentene, , nerol, citronellol, farnesol, linalooletc, geraniol, Citral a, Citral b, furfural, isovaleraidehyde, citronellal, decylaldehyde, farnesal, diacetyl, methyl […]

Tutup Bumi

Plant Part Used Leaf, stem, whole plant. Active Constituents Dotriacontanol, epifriedelinol, triacontanol, pottassium chloride, 11,13-dihydrodeoxyelephantopin, 11,13-dihydroelephantopin, stigmosterol, epifriedelanol, lupeol, sesquiterpene lactones (deoxyelephantopin, isodeoxyelephantopin, scabertopin), mixture of triacontan-1-ol and dotriacontan-1-ol, luteolin-7-glucoside, lupeol acetate, molephantin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-methoxyphantomolin, 2-de-ethoxy-2-hydroxyphantomolin. (1) , (2) , (3) , (4) Introduction Elephantopus scaber Linn. or tutup bumi is a wild shrub about 20-40cm […]

Bunga Cengkih

Plant Part Used Flower buds Active Constituents Acetophenone, benzaldehyde, 3-methoxybenzaldehyde, benzoic acid benzyl ester, benzoic acid ethyl ester, benzoic acid methyl ester, benzoic acid propyl ester, alpha-cadinene, gamma-cadinene, alpha-cadinol, calamenene, alpha-copaene, alpha-cubebene, cubenene, cuminaldehyde, gamma-decalactone, fenchone, furaldehyde, 5-methyl furaldehyde, geranial, 6-methylhept-5-en-2-one, heptan-2-one, hexanal, linoleic acid methyl ester, alpha-muurolene, beta-muurolene, gamma-muurolene, nonan-2-one, palmitic acid methyl ester, […]


Plant Part Used Roots, Stems (1) Active Constituents Alkaloid, Berberine, Fibleucin, Delta(8,9)-decarboxyfibleucin, 6-hydroxyfibraurin, Fibraurin. (2) ,, (3) , (4) Introduction The plant is a woody climber of the family Menispermaceae. It was used as a yellow dye in Malaysia and Brunei. The roots are used medicinally. Standardization No standard marker has been reported. Other standard […]

Tongkat Ali

Plant Part Used Roots Active Constituents Eurycomanone, 13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 12-acetyl-13,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13beta,21-dihydroeurycomanone, 13(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 15-acetyl-13alpha (21)-epoxyeurycomanone, 12,15-diacetyl-13alpha(21)-epoxyeurycomanone, eurycomanol, 13beta,18-dihydroeurycomanol, eurycomanol-2-O-beta-D-glucopy-ranoside, eurycomalactone, 6alpha-hydroxyeurycomalactone, 7alpha-hydroxyeurycomalactone, 5,6-dehydroeurycomalactone, eurylactone A and B, eurycolactone A to C, eurycolactone D to F, laurycolactone A and B, longilactone, 6-dehydroxylongilactone, 6-dehydrolongilactone, 11-dehydro-klaineanone, 12-epi-11-dehydroklaineanone, 15beta-hydroxyklaineanone, 6alpha-acetoxy-15beta-hydroxyklaineanone, 14,15beta-dihydroxyklaineanone, 15beta-acetyl-14-hydroxyklaineanone, 6alpha-acetoxy-14,15beta-dihydroxyklaineanone and 6alpha-acetoxy-15beta-hydroxyklaineanone, canthin-6-one, canthin-6-one-3N-oxide, 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one, 9-hydroxycanthin-6-one-3N-oxide, 11-hydroxycanthin-6-one, 9-methoxycanthin-6-one, […]


Plant Part Used Leaves Active Constituents indoles, mitragynaline, orynantheidaline, mitragynalinic acid, corynantheidalinic, mitragynaline, speciogynine, speciociliatine, paynantheine, 7alpha-hydroxy-7H-mitragynine, isocorynoxeine, and mitralactonine were isolated. In addition, a porphine derivative, phaeophorbide. (-)-9-methoxymitralactonine, 3-dehydromitragynine and (-)-Epicatechin. (1) , (2) , (3) , Introduction M. speciosa Korth is a tree growing to about 50 feet tall with a spread of […]


Plant Part Used Leaves, twigs, and roots Active Constituents The leaves have beta-sitosterol; lupeol; friedelin; 2-amino-0-methyl-benzyl alcohol; 2-(2’-amino-benzylamino)-0-methyl-benzyl alcohol; 2-amino-benzyl alcohol; 2-(2’-amino-benzylamino)-benzyl alcohol, justicineand high potassium content. The root contains justicine and volatile oil. (1) , (2) , (3) Introduction Gendarussa vulgaris probably originated from China. However, nowadays it grows throughout southeastern Asia and Malaysia. […]

Misai Kucing

Plant Part Used Leaves Active Constituents Beta-caryophyllene, alpha-humulene, caryophyllene-epoxide, eupatorin, sinensetin, scutellarine tetramethyl ethers, salvigenin, 7,3′,4’-tri-O-methylluteolin, 5-hydroxy-6, 7’,3′,4’-tetramethoxyflavone, ladanein, 6-hydroxy-5, 7’,4′-trimethoxyflavone, 2,3-dicoffeoyltartrate, rosmaric acid, 2-caffeoyltartrate, terpenoids. diterpene ester, orthosiphole A to E (diterpene dibenzoyl diacetyl ester of primarane type), neoorthosiphol A and B orthosiphole F to J, staminol A and B, norstaminol A orthochromene A […]