Chiropractic Today


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Association-based news, press releases and general information about chiropractic and patient care


This section serves to give a brief background on chiropractic as well as to highlight some of the issues surrounding the profession. It is hoped that readers would come away with some understanding of the chiropractic profession as it is around the world today.

2.1 What is Chiropractic?

Chiropractic is a branch of health care specialising in the correction of the biomechanical disorders of the spinal column [1]. Thus chiropractors, the practitioners of chiropractic are spinal health care experts in the health care system [2]. As a profession, chiropractors are concerned with the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of disorders of the (neuro) musculoskeletal systems and the effect of the disorder on general health [3], [4].

The term spinal manipulation therapy is sometimes (but not always) interchangeable with chiropractic.

2.2 Where did Chiropractic come from?

Chiropractic was founded by D.D. Palmer in Davenport, Iowa in 1895. He later founded the Palmer School of Chiropractic in 1897, which remains a major education facility for chiropractic today [5]. The word chiropractic is said to be a suggestion by an early patient, the Rev. Samuel Weed and is from the Greek words praktikos, meaning practice, and cheiro, meaning hand; thus chiropractic could be taken to mean as a method of healing ’by the hand‘.

2.3 How are Chiropractic treatment methods unique? 

Chiropractic is non-invasive,in that it does not involve the use of surgery and avoids the use of pharmaceuticals [2]. Instead of drugs or surgery, the chiropractic emphasis is on manual treatment or techniques, which includes spinal and other joint and soft tissue manipulation [3], [4].

Chiropractic is non-invasive,in that it does not involve the use of surgery and avoids the use of pharmaceuticals [2]. Instead of drugs or surgery, the chiropractic emphasis is on manual treatment or techniques, which includes spinal and other joint and soft tissue manipulation [3], [4]

Furthermore, the chiropractic approach to good health is holistic, wherein the self-healing properties of the body and the self-determination and mind-body relationship of the patient is encouraged by the chiropractor [2].

Chiropractors commonly include passive adjunctive therapy into their practices, such as nutritional counselling, trigger point therapy, ice packs and bracing. Active adjunctive care includes corrective or therapeutic exercises and instructions in daily activities e.g. avoiding sitting by the computer for long periods of time. Nearly all chiropractors advise patients on the importance of physical fitness, correct posture, relaxation or stress reduction methods, diet, early screening advice, and the avoidance of risky behaviours e.g. smoking

2.4 How is Chiropractic diagnosis performed?

Chiropractic diagnosis is usually performed in two stages [5]. As chiropractors are primary contact health care practitioners, a general or differential diagnosis is usually performed first, to see if the patient falls within the chiropractic scope of practice or requires a referral to other health care professionals. At this stage, diagnostic methods are similar to those of medical doctors (MD), including physical examination, history taking, and orthopaedic, neurological and laboratory testing. In addition, imaging methods such as MRI, X-rays or other emerging techniques are commonly used.

Once it is determined that the patient is within the chiropractic scope of practice, the doctor of chiropractic (DC) would perform chiropractic analysis, which includes joint and soft tissue palpation, measurement of the range of motion, postural symmetry, dynamic spinal loading, reactive leg length discrepancy, gait analysis, a muscle imbalance test and functional capacity and physical performance evaluations.

2.5 How is palpation important to Chiropractic?

One of the hallmarks of the chiropractic profession is the way in which a patient is assessed via palpation; treatment or corrective adjustments would be difficult without this knowledge. According to DeGiacomo [8], palpation is more than using just touch to gain information about a patient’s condition. There are three fundamental forms of palpation in chiropractic i.e. tactile palpation, which requires the sense of touch; visual palpation, where the patient’s posture and spinal distortion is observed using the sense of sight; and motion palpation, where spinal abnormalities or muscular fixations are determined via contact and the observation of each segment of the spine while it is in motion. In a sense, palpation is an art, as it requires a certain amount of knowledge, training, and then practice to be properly familiar with the technique.

2.6 Is Chiropractic a science, an art or a philosophy?

Some schools of thought within chiropractic would prefer to focus on the scientific component of the profession, others on the philosophy, and whether or not they call it such, all chiropractors require the art of palpation to analyse their patient’s condition.

Zolli [6], in an introduction of a source manual for chiropractic students and practitioners, stated that chiropractic is a ’philosophy, art, and science dedicated to helping humanity improve by establishing the optimum relationship between structure and function’. He elaborates further that science influences all branches of the healing arts including chiropractic’s techniques and art of diagnosis.

And in his book, The Chiropractic Story about a personal quest for healing, Bach [9] sumps up the chiropractic philosophy thus :

‘… at a deeper level there is among thinking people a swing away from these prescribed and dangerous short-cuts to health and healing and a decided movement toward getting at the root cause of disease and correcting it.[…] The body has a wish and a will to be well, and chiropractors are convinced that they have found the way, persuaded that ‘chiropractic adds years to life and life to years!’ 

2.7 What about criticisms to Chiropractic scientific content?

There have been criticisms towards chiropractic with regards to its scientific content, in particular, some of the theories that were proposed to explain treatment efficacy. In New Zealand, a commission of inquiry was formed to investigate chiropractic, the result of which was published in 1979 and has been an important source material in the formation of chiropractic legislation worldwide. On the subject of chiropractic theories, the commission has this to say:

’For that fact remains that the various chiropractic theories which have been advanced since chiropractic was first developed are properly to be regarded as no more than attempts to explain how chiropractic gets the results it does. The fact that a particular chiropractic theory is discredited by a later advance in scientific knowledge does not mean that the results of a chiropractor’s treatment have not happened. It simply means that the explanation provided by the discredited theory was not correct: so there must be another explanation. Indeed it is probably true to say that chiropractic is a form of treatment still in search of an explanation for its effectiveness’ [1].

2.8 Is Chiropractic a part of “mainstream” health care?

Chiropractic often faced opposition from others in the health care community, and this was particularly evident between its early years at the turn of the 19th century, all the way to the 1970s. But by the late 1970s, the profession started to mature in terms of legislation, education, accreditation and research agenda. Part of the reasons for this late development, according to Chapman-Smith in his book about the profession, was because chiropractic was not affiliated with any industry that may offer financial ties for research and development, such as the drug and surgical technology industries [5].

By the 1980s, however, there was wider public support for chiropractic services, mostly due to chiropractic’s role in treating two common health care issues, headaches and back pain. This support turned to acceptance by mainstream health care in the 1990s. Again, improved standards of education and worldwide regulation of the practice was responsible for this widespread public understanding and support. In the US, increased cooperation from the mainstream medical community came about after the final judgement of the Wilk case in 1987, in which the federal appeals court ruled against the American Medical Association in a landmark anti-trust case

From then on, chiropractic articles in journals published by medical associations was on the rise, as were chiropractic research and clinical guidelines for practice, thus furthering acceptance of the profession. The evolution of healthcare, where medical doctors seek cooperation with increasingly specialised professionals e.g. optometrists and podiatrists, also helped with the integration of chiropractors into the mainstream

In 1997, the World Health Organization (WHO) admitted the World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC), representing national chiropractic associations from over 70 countries – into official relations as an NGO [5], [10]. This is another sign of acceptance and more importantly, the application received the support of other (mainstream) health sector NGOs such as the World Federation of Neurology, the International Council of Nurses, and the World Federation of Public Health Associations. In 2005, the WHO released the Guidelines on Basic Training and Safety in Chiropractic.

2.9 How does one become a Chiropractor?

Education and competency standards are stringent as chiropractors are primary contact physicians.

The licensing requirements in countries with legislation requiring registration of chiropractors are quite similar. In the US, chiropractic students are required to have completed general college-level studies, or in some states, a Bachelor’s degree.

They then move on to the Doctor of Chiropractic Degree and clinical externship (supervised clinical training) through an accredited four-year chiropractic college programme. Accreditation of chiropractic programs and institutions in the US is granted by the Council on Chiropractic Education (CCE) Commission on Accreditation, which was granted that authority by the US Department of Education. Internationally, in Australia and New Zealand, Canada, England and France, the programs are accredited via affiliated councils in those countries [11]. Criteria for accreditation are strict in order to maintain high standards of education. For example, each curriculum must have a minimum of 4,200 hours of semester/quarter course credits and must address specific subjects. The curriculum should include not less than 1000 hours of supervised clinical training [4].

Students are also required to undergo a pre-licensure written examination by the National Board of Chiropractic Examiners’ and/or other state-required examinations. The NBCE [12]is the international testing agency for the chiropractic profession and examinations are generally required prior to graduation. Examinations are administered at the college test sites in the US, Canada, England, France and Australia in four parts, wherein:

  • Part I : the basic sciences,
  • Part II : clinical sciences
  • Part III: written clinical competence and
  • Part IV: Pre-licensure practical examination

Before becoming a licensed chiropractor, the applicant would have to fulfil other individual state/country specific requirement for licensure. This would differ from state to state in the US and among other countries in the world depending on the requirements of the local legislature



There were approximately 90,000 chiropractors worldwide in the year 1998, with more than two-thirds of this number practicing in the US. By 2010, it is estimated that there would be 100,000 chiropractors in the US and 150,000 internationally [13]

On this page is a list of national chiropractic associations worldwide, all members of the World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC) [14]. The WFC represents these associations and the chiropractic profession internationally and is in official relations as a non-governmental organization with the World Health Organization (WHO).

The regulation of chiropractors is differ from nation and generally fit into three categories [15]:

  • countries with legislation, where chiropractic practices are accepted and / or regulated.
  • countries with regulation based on common law.
  • countries with unclear legal chiropractic status.

The latter category could be divided into two, countries with de facto recognition and countries where chiropractors face the risk of prosecution.

Note: Please read the Terms and Conditions below before using this list. Due to privacy laws in some countries, some membership lists cannot be posted on this website. Where lists are not available, please contact the local national association listed, licensing or registration boards or other relevant authority. Not all chiropractors can be contacted via the Internet; in such situations, please consult the local yellow pages or similar directories.



The following list is divided into regions

  • African Region
  • Asian Region
  • Eastern Mediterranean Region
  • European Region
  • Latin American Region
  • North American Region
  • Pacific Region

Abbreviation and Symbols and Glosarry

 WFC  World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC)
* Application for WFC membership not yet approved.
< Less than
N/A Not available
LegislatedCountries with legislation to accept and/or regulate chiropractic practice.
General law Countries without specific legislation, where regulation is based on common law.
de factoCountries where the legal status of chiropractic is unclear but there is de facto recognition.
RiskCountries in which legal status is unclear and chiropractors face the risk of prosecution.

3.1.1    African Region

Country National Associations with WFC membership Approximate number of chiropractors legal status of country Chiropractor list
Botswana Botswana Chiropractic Association<10legislatedN/A
EthiopiaChiropractic Association of Ethiopia<10General law
GhanaGhana Chiropractic Association<10General law
KenyaChiropractic Association of Kenya<10General law
MauritiusMauritian Chiropractic Association<10General law
NamibiaNamibian Chiropractic Association<10General law
South AfricaChiropractic Association of South Africa330legislated
UgandaChiropractic Association of Uganda<10N/A
ZimbabweChiropractic Association of Zimbabwe<10legislated

3.1.2 Asian Region

Country National Association with WFC membership [14] Approximate number of chiropractors [16] Legal status of country [17] Chiropractor list
Hong Kong Hong Kong Chiropractors’ Association90LegislatedN/A
IndiaIndia Association of Chiropractic Doctors<10N/A
IndonesiaAsosiasi Chiropraktor Indonesia18General Law
JapanJapanese Association of Cjiropractors195General Law
PhilipinesChiropractic Asssociation of the Phillippines12General Law
SingaporeThe Chiropractic Associations (Singapore)20General LawGo to association website, select ‘chiropraktors on the menu.
South KoreaKorean Chiropractic AssociationN/ARisk
TaiwanTaiwan Chiropractic Doctors’ Society20de facto
ThailandThailand Chiropractic Association20Legislated

3.1.3 Eastern Mediterranean Region

Country Nasional Associations with WFC membershipApproximate number of chiropractors[16]Legal satatus of countryChiropractor list
Cyprus Cyprus Chiropractic Association [14]<10LegislatedGo to the Association website, go to Cyprus Chiropractic Asociation and select ‘Registered Chiropractors’ on the menu.
EgyptChiropractic Society of Egypt<10General LawN/A
IranIranian Chiropractic Association[14]52Legislated
IsraelIsraeli Chiropractic Society [14]75General Law
JordanJordania Chiropractic Association [14]N/AGeneral Law
KuwaitChiropractic Association of Kuwait*[15]<10N/A
LebanonLebanese Chiropractic Association[14]<10General Law
LibyaLibyan Chiropractic Association [14]<10General Law
MoroccoMorrocan Federation of Chiropractic [14]<10General Law
QatarChiropractic Association of Qatar [14]<10General Law
Saudi ArabiaChiropractic Association of Saudi Arabia [14]11
SyriaChiropractic Association of Asia[14]<10de facto
TurkeyTurkish Chiropractic Association<10General LawAvailable
United Arab EmiratesEmirates Chiropractic Association10LegislatedN/A

3.1.4 European Region

Country National Association with WFC membershipApproximate number of chiropractors[16]Legal satatus of country [17]Chiropractor list
Austria Austrian Chiropractic
<10 N/AN/A
BelgiumUnion Belge Des Chiropractors [14]105LegislatedN/A
CroatiaCroation Chiropractic Association [14]<10Genaral Law
Czech RepublicCzech Republic Chiropractic Association*[14]<2N/A
DenmarkDanish Chiropractors’ Association[14]450Legislated
EstoniaEesti Uhendus Chiropratika Arstid*[14]N/AN/AN/A
FinlandFinnish Chiropractic Union[14]52Legislated
FranceAssociation Francaise de Chiropratique [14]450legislated
GermanyGerman Chiropractors’ Association[14]70General LawGo to association
select ‘Chiropraktoren
in ihrer Nähe’ on the menu.Enter area
GreeceHellenic Chiropractors’ Association[14]<25de factoGo to association
website and
select ‘Λίστα Μελών’ on the menu.
HungaryHungarian Chiropractic Association [14]<10de factoN/A
IcelandIcelandic Chiropractic Association [14]<10Legislated
IrelandChiropractic Association of Ireland [14]175General Law
ItalyAssociation of Italian Chiropractors [14]<220Legislated
LiechtenstinLiechtenstein Chiropractic Association [14]<10Legislated
MoldovaMoldova Chiropractic Association*[16]<10N/A
NetherlandsNetherlands Chiropractic Association [14]250General Law
NorwayNorwegian Chiropractor Association [14]400Legislated
Poland Polish Chiropractic Association[14]<10N/A
PortugalPortuguese Chiropractors Association [14]<30Legislated
RomaniaRomanian Chiropractic Association [14]<10N/A
Russian FederationRussian Association of Chiropractors[14]<10General Law
SerbiaSerbian Chiropractic Association[14]N/ALegislated
SlovakiaSlovakian Chiropractors’ Association [14]<10General LawN/A
SloveniaSlovenian Chiropractic Association[14]<10N/A
SpainAsociación Española de Quiropráctica [14]175de facto
SweedenSwedish Chiropractic Association [14]160Legislated
SwitzerlandChiroSuisse Association of Swiss Chiropractors250Legislated
UkraineUkraine Chiropractic Association [14]<10N/A
United KingdomBritish Chiropractic Association [14]2150LegislatedGo to association
website. Enter
into the ‘Find a Chiropractor’ box.

3.1.5 Latin American Region

Country National Association
with WFC membership [14]
Approximate number of chiropractors[16] Legal status of country[17] Chiropractor list
Argentina Asociación de
100General LawN/A
BoliviaAsociación Boliviana
de Quiroprácticos
Centificos Profesionales
BrazilAssociação Brasileira
de Quiropraxia
160General Law
ChileCentro Quiropráctica
Chile Ltda.
<10General Law
ColombiaCentro Quiropractico
Cabecera (Colombia)
<10General Law
Costa RicaAsociación Quiropráctica
del Equador
EcuadorAsociación Quiropráctica
del Equador
<10General Law
El SalvadorSociedad de Quiropráctica
El Salvador*
GuatemalaAsociación Guatemalteca
Cientifica de Quiropractico
HondurasLa Asociación Quiropráctica
del Honduras
<10General Law
MexicoColegio de Profesionistas Cientifico-Quiroprácticos de Mexico AC80Legislated
PanamaAsociación National de Quiroprácticos<10LegislatedN/A
PeruAsociatión de Quiroprácticos
del Peru
25General Law

3.1.6 North American Region

Country National Association
with WFC membership
Approximate number of chiropractors[16]Legal status of country Chiropractor list
BahamasBahamas Chiropractic Association*<10LegislatedN/A
BarbadosBarbados Association of Chiropractic Physicians<10Legislated
BelizeBelize Chiropractic Association<10General Law
BermudaChiropractic Association of Bermuda<10General Law
British Virgin IslandBritish Virgin Islands Chirorpractic Association<10General Law
CanadaCanadian Chiropractic Association6500Legislated
CaymanCayman Islands Chiropractic Association<10General Law
JamaicaChiropractic Association of Jamaica* [15]N/AGeneral Law
Puerto ricoAsociación Quiroprácticos de Puerto Rico* [16]N/ALegislated
Saint Kitts and NevisChiropractic Association of St. Kitts and Nevis<10N/A
Trinidad and TobagoChiropractic Association of Trinidad and Tobago<10General Law
United StatesAmerican Chiropractic Association (ACA)ANDInternational Chiropractors Association (ICA)6500LegislatedGo to the ACA website to utilize their ‘Find a Doctor’ tool.

3.1.7 Pacific Region

Country National Association with WFC membership [14]Approximate number of chiropractors [16]Legal status of countryCountry
AustraliaChiropractors’ Association of Australia (National) Limited3000LegislatedN/A
New ZealandNew Zealand Chiropractors’ Association400Legislated

Terms and Conditions

GlobinMed Chiropractic Directory is a listing of chiropractors worldwide with emphasis on those practicing in the Asian region and Commonwealth countries.

This list is provided ’as is‘ by Tonik Asia Group Sdn Bhd, for the use of GlobinMed Chiropractic and was compiled with the kind assistance of various national chiropractic associations who provided member lists.

The directory is meant as a reference for the general public in locating a chiropractic practitioner; it is not intended as an official verification of the credentials, licensure, qualifications or abilities of any chiropractor listed in the directory. Inclusion in the list does not imply endorsement, affiliation or recommendation by GlobinMed; conversely, omission does not imply disapproval.

GlobinMed and Tonik Asia Group are not liable for any action taken by the user or chiropractor based on the information provided in this list. The user bears full responsibility and liability over any communication or action taken with the chiropractor on this list. The directory must NOT be used in any way, to verify the credentials of any chiropractor. To verify the credentials of a chiropractor, please get in touch with the local national association, Licensing/Registration Board or other relevant authority, where such Boards do not exist.

By using the GlobinMed Chiropractor Directory, you agree to these terms and conditions.


  1. Commission of Inquiry into Chiropractic. Chiropractic in New Zealand: report of the commission of Inquiry, 1979. Wellington, NZ: PD Hasselberg, Govt. Printer; 1979.
  2. Carey PF, Clum G, Dixon P, co-chairs. Final report of the Identity Consultation Task Force. [Online] Toronto: World Federation of Chiropractic; 2005. Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2022].
  3. World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC). Dictionary Definition. 2001. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed >10 February 2022
  4. World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on basic training and safety in Chiropractic. [Online] Geneva: World Health Organization; 2005. Available from: URL: [Accessed >10 February 2022].
  5. Chapman-Smith D. The chiropractic profession. West Des Moines (IA): NCMIC Group Inc; 2000.
  6. Zolli F. An introduction to the principles of chiropractic. In: Schafer RC. Basic Principles of Chiropractic: the Neuroscience Foundation of Clinical Practice. Arlington (VA): The American Chiropractic Association; 1990.
  7. Christensen MG, Kollasch MW, editors. Job analysis of chiropractic 2005: A project report, survey analysis, and summary of the practice of chiropractic within United States. Colorado: National Board of Chiropractic Examiners; 2005.
  8. DeGiacomo FP. Chiropractic analysis through palpation. New York: New York Chiropractic College; 1979.
  9. Bach M. The chiropractic story. Los Angeles: DeVorss & Co Inc; 1968.
  10. Editorial staff. WHO establishes official relations with the chiropractic profession. Dynamic Chiropractic 1997 Feb 10; 15(4); Available from: [Accessed >10 February 2022].
  11. The Council on Chiropractic Education [Online] Available from: [Accessed >10 February 2022].
  12. National Board of Chiropractic Examiners [Online] Available from: [Accessed >10 February 2022].
  13. Chapman-Smith D. The chiropractic profession. West Des Moines (IA): NCMIC Group Inc; 2000. p. 25.
  14. <World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC). Contacts/Countries. 2006. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed >10 February 2022].
  15. Japanese Association of Chiropractors (JAC). WFC Member Associations. 2004. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed >10 February 2022].
  16. Chiropractic Diplomatic Corps. [Online]. Available from: [Accessed 13 Aug 2009].
  17. World Federation of Chiropractic (WFC). Legal status. c 2009 [online] Available from: [Accessed 10 February 2022] .
  18. Association of Chiropractic, Malaysia [Online] Available from: [Accessed >10 February 2022].

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